Lifecycle Analysis (LCA) is a specific analytical approach to evaluating the impact of human artifacts. It engages lifecycle thinking by guiding decision makers to consider each stage of that artifact’s lifecycle, from material extraction through production, use, and disposal, and consider the impacts of those stages.
Lifecycle thinking is most often considered in the context of products, but can also be applied to services and other systems that deliver a clear unit of value. The idea is to evaluate the multi-dimensional impacts of delivering the unit of value not just at its point of delivery but also tracing supply chains required to deliver the value back to their points of origin, considering the impacts during the time the unit of value is being provided, and during any disposal or recycling.
In addressing their sustainability agenda through design and construction, cities are subject to unique challenges, which requires effective exchange of knowledge and subject matter expertise among distributed project teams. At the same time, design and construction projects are dynamic and uncertain, requiring considerable coordination, communication and leadership to execute. Executing such projects in a virtual environment can offer many advantages and facilitate the design efforts. Yet, coordination, communication and leadership become increasingly difficult.
Fundamentals and Challenges for a Sustainable Chemical Enterprise
In the chemical enterprise (industry, government and academia), chemists and engineers are involved in and are responsible for the development of new products, materials and manufacturing processes. These activities include developing manufacturing processes that are environmentally friendlier, safer for workers and society, and economically more sustainable. They participate in and contribute to all segments of the supply chain, from cradle to grave (nature back to nature).